The code provides that each collective agreement must last at least one year, while the parties are free to agree on a longer term, and often do so. During the term of the agreement, amendments to any of its provisions may be made only with the agreement of the trade union and the employer. Under the Code, all collective agreements must provide for a common consultation process for the parties to address workplace issues that arise during the term of the collective agreement. The aim of the joint consultation is that beyond collective bargaining, countries are also different in terms of the existence and role of different forms of workers` voices that organise the collective expression of workers` interests in the workplace or at company level. The different forms of institutionalized communication between workers and managers, which offer an alternative to exit (i.e. the dismissal of disgruntled workers), are taken into account in the management of collective problems. Voice provides employees with the opportunity to resolve workplace issues by contacting management (Willman, Gomez, & Bryson, 2009). The need for a workers` voice is described as inherent in working life (Gomez, Bryson and Willman, 2010). Box 2.7 examines the influence of different workers` voting systems on workers` « vote against departure behaviour » and compares the cases of France and the United Kingdom.
Despite these benefits, collective agreement coverage has increased from over 80% in 1979 to 26% today. Second, it is true that the dominant level of negotiation (e.g.B. However, the enterprise level, the sectoral or sectoral level or the national/intersectoral level) where the parties negotiate does not fully cover the actual degree of centralisation or decentralisation. This last point also depends on the rules governing the hierarchy between the different levels and on the possibility for companies to withdraw from higher agreements or, in the event of economic difficulties, to unsubscribe from their own agreement. In particular, systems based on sectoral or national/cross-sectoral negotiations are not necessarily centralised. They may be so if they leave little or no room for manoeuvre to change the terms of agreements in agreements at a lower level; or may be decentralised, but organised, where agreements at company level play an important role in defining employment conditions, but are subject to certain conditions laid down either by law or by the social partners themselves. . . .